Association Between Heavy Backpack Usage and Spinal Deformities Among Grade IV Students in San Vicente Elementary School, Biñan, Laguna of Academic Year 2013 – 2014

Heavy Backpack Usage

Over 92% of children in the United States carry backpacks that exceed 10 to 15 per cent of their body weight, many of which are at risk of backache (Rodriguez-Oviedo et. al., 2012).

In the past few years, there has been a growing concern among teachers, school administrators, parents,and health care professionals over the effect of school backpacks on spinal and shoulder problems in children and adolescents (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2006Balague, Skovron, Nordin, Dutoit, Pol, and Waldburger, 1995Grimmer, Williams, Gill, 1999.Iyer, 2001, Negrini and Carabalona,2002Rateau2004Wiersman, Wall, and Foad, 2003 in Moore, 2007).

Chronic musculoskeletal pain in school children, caused by the weight of carry-on items in the school backpack, has been established as a significant problem (Guyer, 2001). Pain represents a symptom, not a sign. Though the perception of pain is very personal and subjective, several factors probably affect pain among school children who carry backpacks including the actual weight carried, body mass index, percent body fat, muscular strength, exercise habits, smoking habits, diet and nutrition, mood, design of shoes worn, posture and gait, and presence or absence of scoliosis (Iyer, 2000).

While research indicates that thousands of backpack injuries result yearly from factors other than carrying the backpack (eg, tripping over them, taking them off improperly, straps getting entangled in bicyclegears, etc),(American Academy of Pediatrics, 2006; Wiersman, Wall, and Foad, 2003; Lockhart, Jacobs, and Orsmond, 2004), the primary concern of many school personnel and parents is the long-term use of heavy backpacks as the routine method of carrying books and other articles to, from, and at school which may negatively influence one’s spinal curvature (in Moore, 2007 Ramona, 2010).

Several studies prove that the posture of the spine changes when the weight of the backpack increases (Cottalorda,, 2004). This is reflected with spinal deformities that usually occur during the juvenile age, often diagnosed as Scoliosis, Kyphosis and Lordosis, or a combination of both (Ramova, 2010). However, while it is proven that adolescents who suffer from back pain will probably have chronic back pain as adults, there is no sufficient evidence as to our knowledge demonstrating a relationship between the development of spinal deviation and the weight of the backpack.

Early detection is a key to the successful management of treating spinal deformities and preventing its progression. In lieu with this, it is of grave importance to realize that aside from known causes of pediatric spinal deformities, it is a must to put emphasis on the children’s modern way of life which may further aggravate or directly cause one’s spinal condition.

At this juncture, the researchers of the department of Pediatrics have decided to conduct a study entitled: Association Between Heavy Backpack Usage and Spinal Deformities Among Grade IV Students in San Vicente Elementary School, Biñan, Laguna of Academic Year 2013 – 2014 which aims to determine the association between heavy backpack usage and spinal deformities among Grade IV students.

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Originally posted on On Being Both:

Frank and Medina Frank and Medina

(Note: Today I’m pleased to share this space with guest blogger Frank Fredericks.)

I recently read Susan Katz Miller’s Being Both, which is a practical, story-based guide on the many options interfaith couples have, with a particular focus on the feasibility of raising children in more than one faith tradition.

Being in an interfaith marriage of my own as a Millennial, I was fascinated by the different approaches offered, but at times felt like the discourse within its pages was for Gen X’ers, who are now raising children, whether toddlers or teens, and Boomers, the generation before them.  The challenges presented to them as interfaith couples include communal acceptance, birth and coming of age rituals, and ultimately identity in adulthood.  I believe Millennials will be facing slightly different challenges.

While reading, I reflected on my own marriage with Medina, who is a Muslim of Afghan and…

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I cut my first C-Section

Posted: March 11, 2015 in Uncategorized

Originally posted on Barefoot Whispers:

That title should be in all-caps. Because I am THAT excited!

My first rotation in third year med school was OBGYN. I delivered a baby before I even know how to put up an IV. And now, my first rotation of Internship is OBGYN, and this time the big milestone is delivering babies via C-section.

first cs

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On Watching the movie ‘Starting Over Again’

Posted: January 23, 2015 in Uncategorized

♫d0c sHei♫:

Brilliantly reviewed. Must-read. ^_^

Originally posted on taking chances:

Taking Chances:

“On Watching the movie ‘Starting Over Again'”

This is a continuation of an earlier blog post:

Starting Over Again movie from Star Cinema with Piolo Pascual and Toni Gonzaga as the lead stars Starting Over Again movie from Star Cinema with Piolo Pascual and Toni Gonzaga as the lead stars

If there’s one movie that Starting Over Again  has a similar resemblance to, it’s My Amnesia Girl.

My Amnesia Girl. My Amnesia Girl. Aside from Toni Gonzaga, My Amnesia Girl had a number of similarities to Starting Over Again. Toni’s character Irene, who was dumped in My Amnesia Girl, was reincarnated as Ginny in Starting Over Again. This time, it’s her turn to leave her beloved Marco played by Piolo.

My Amnesia had the pick-up lines; Starting had the quotable quotes.

My Amnesia had JLC leaving Toni during their wedding out of fear of failure; Starting had Toni leaving Piolo during a prelude to a wedding — the proposal — out of fear of his predicted failure.

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My Japanese N3DS is here.

Posted: December 27, 2014 in Uncategorized

Originally posted on Hi, I'm Nick:

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Fall Wonderland

Posted: December 13, 2014 in Uncategorized

Saving Up For Scents

Posted: December 13, 2014 in Uncategorized

I’ve always been a fan of the signature, high-end perfumes that every girl would want to wear everyday aside from the famous Chanel No. 5, don’t get me wrong. But nowadays, wearing perfume becomes more of a necessity rather than a luxury (for as long as it is still within your budget).
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Incorporating Physio

Posted: November 26, 2014 in Uncategorized

After 22 days of attending lectures, reading notes, downloading every classical music I know of to help me concentrate during my study time and munching all known sweets – chocolates and candies, and loading my blood stream with caffeine, I realized that what I’m learning today is what I’ll be needing tomorrow.

This is practically the month where I first get a good grasp of all my basic subjects which were floating at the back of my mind when I was in med school. This is the first time that I can literally appreciate what I am going to do for the next 20 years.

The human being is such a great creation and Medicine is by all means its discoverer.

Why am I saying this? God made us perfectly imperfect and with a purpose that even the smallest part of our body, from our DNA, to our cells, plays a specific role in our lives. It came across when I was about to compare my budget for “diet food” and with how much I’m spending with the kiddie, finger-licking, glucose-supply of Stik-O.

And I ended up realizing after reading my handouts how desperate I am to have more of POMC released by my Anorexigenic neurons to decrease my appetite and say goodbye to Ghrelin for now which practically inhibits my precious neurons, favoring the Lateral Hypothalamus. In layman’s term, I want to go on diet.

Before it was kind of hard to memorize these terms, but now, I appreciate the medical jargon and how simple those complex things were when you’re enjoying what you’re studying.

Caption of Picture: If it wasn’t for this picture, I wouldn’t have post this article. One stik-o is equal to more yogurt and more fit n right.


5 Ways To Generate Blog Post Ideas

Posted: October 29, 2014 in Uncategorized

Originally posted on 101 Books:

This marks my 954th post on 101 Books.

Four years ago, I would’ve laughed if you told me I would publish that many posts on this blog. How could I possibly write 954 posts about a list of books?

But you’d be surprised at how relatively easy it is to come up with topics once you make a habit out of coming up with topics. I’ve figured out a few ways to build brainstorming into my everyday life, without taking up a chunk of time I don’t have.

That’s really helped me generate new ideas for the blog, so I thought I’d share a few of my tips with you guys. If you have a blog, maybe you might find one or two worth your time.

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A Moment: The Nurse and the Med Student

Posted: October 29, 2014 in Uncategorized

Originally posted on Barefoot Whispers:

She was a professional nurse at our hospital, not much older than me, and with no time during shift-work to see her private gynaecologist, she made the scary decision to come to the hospital’s gynae-clinic (scary because she would most certainly be seen first by an inept medical student before seeing the specialist).

I had to page her when I was ready for her, and while waiting for her to arrive I went through her latest results. I saw that on the same day as her last Pap smear, she had had an HIV-test. It was her six-month follow-up test after an injury on duty.

It was a moment that reminded me how connected healthcare workers are. We work long and strange hours that cause us to neglect our own health. We expose ourselves to the flavour-of-the-season bugs. In the heat of the moment resuscitating a patient we are at high…

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